There are some ideas about Oracle that are so fundamental that they should be lodged in your brain and floating behind your eyes whenever you want to investigate SQL performance problems. Here’s one of them:
Histograms and bind variables exist for diametrically opposed reasons – they won’t work well together without help.
You use bind variables because you want everyone to share the same child cursor for an SQL statement because that statement is going to be used very frequently, everyone is going to do the same (small) amount of work with it, the same execution plan should be ideal for everyone, and you don’t want to re-optimise it every time you use it because the overheads for optimisation would probably be greater than the resources need to run the statement. Typically we want to make great (but not exclusive) use of bind variables in OLTP systems.
You create histograms because statements that are virtually identical do enormously different amounts of work, need different execution plans, and the work done in optimising is tiny compared to the work done by the statements, and getting the wrong execution plan would lead to a huge waste of resources. Typically you need to generate histograms in data warehouse or decision support systems where the queries can be brutal and expensive.
Spot the contradiction – one technology is supposed to give you one plan that everyone uses; the other technology is supposed to give each individual the plan that’s best for them.
Remember that and you will remember to be cautious about sticking histograms into OLTP systems, and won’t be tempted to turn absolutely every literal into a bind variable.
Footnote: It seems that this article should have been called “Philosophy – 2” because I’ve just rediscovered a short note called “Philosophy”